Currently this is a scratchpad for referencing known uses of CC licensing and material in the GLAM sector: Galleries, Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Please add to the list and turn compelling uses into Case Studies.
- 1 Galleries
- 2 Libraries
- 2.1 Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford
- 2.2 British Library
- 2.3 Canadian University Libraries
- 2.4 Cologne-based Libraries
- 2.5 Europeana
- 2.6 Finnish Libraries
- 2.7 Fundamental Scientific Library of the National Academy of Science of Armenia
- 2.8 Harvard Library
- 2.9 Hood River County Library District
- 2.10 Land Library of Saxony - State and University Library Dresden
- 2.11 Library of Congress
- 2.12 Library, London School of Economics (British Library of Political and Economic Science)
- 2.13 National Library of Australia
- 2.14 National Library of New Zealand
- 2.15 New York Public Library
- 2.16 Open Library
- 2.17 State Library of Queensland
- 2.18 Swedish National Library
- 2.19 University of California Santa Cruz Library
- 2.20 University of Michigan Library
- 2.21 Villanova University Digital Library
- 3 Archives
- 4 Museums
- 4.1 Amsterdam Historical Museum
- 4.2 Brooklyn Museum
- 4.3 MoMA
- 4.4 National Historical Museum, Sweden
- 4.5 Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum
- 4.6 National September 11 Memorial Museum
- 4.7 Participatory Museum
- 4.8 Powerhouse Museum
- 4.9 The Rijksmuseum
- 4.10 Smithsonian Cooper-Hewitt
- 4.11 Statens Museum for Kunst
- 4.12 Tropenmuseum
- 4.13 Walter Art Museum
- 4.14 York Museums Trust
- 4.15 Te Papa Tongarewa: The Museum of New Zealand
- 4.16 Wikipedia Loves Art
- 5 Institutions using licenses for materials that should be marked as in the public domain
- 6 Additional resources
- 7 In the news
SMK (Statens Museum for Kunst), The National Gallery of Denmark, has released digital images of 160 highlights, and 100 educational videos on YouTube under the CC BY license. The 160 images and 100 videos are also featured in the Google Art Project. The artworks are free of copyright, but the digital images of them have so far been under copyright restrictions.
National Portrait Gallery
National Portrait Gallery in the UK has added the CC BY-NC-ND license to its images of portraits. Example: http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/use-this-image.php?mkey=mw02079.
Tate Gallery data set under CC0: http://www.tate.org.uk/about/our-work/digital/collection-data
Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford
Through the Polonsky Foundation Digitization Project, "The images of the Bodleian’s collections included on this site, and linked to via the image viewing interface, may be used for personal and non-commercial purposes under the terms of the UK Creative Commons ‘Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0’ Licence (CC-BY-NC-SA)." More info: http://bav.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/legal
The British Library released a large set of their bibliographic data into the public domain via the CC0 public domain dedication. This set is from the British National Bibliography, which contains data on publishing activity from the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland since 1950, and comprises 20% of the entire British Library catalog. The dataset currently consists of 3 million individual records.
Canadian University Libraries
Anecdotal evidence suggests that some University libraries offer Creative Commons licensing options in their Institutional Repositories. More research is required in this field.
All bibliographic data from Cologne-based libraries are available to the public with no known copyright restrictions. Cologne-based libraries who surrendered their copyrights using the CC0 public domain dedication include the University and Public Library of Cologne (USB), the Library of the Academy of Media Arts Cologne, the University Library of the University of Applied Science of Cologne, and the LBZ. The data is currently linked from the North Rhine-Westphalian Library Service Center (hbz). For more info, see the blog post.
Europeana — Europe’s digital library, museum and archive, and the first major adopter of the Public Domain Mark — has adopted a new Data Exchange Agreement which releases metadata for millions of cultural works into the public domain using the CC0 public domain dedication.
Several Finnish libraries have opened up their data via the CC BY-SA license:
- maintains two open access journals, the Armenian Journal of Mathematics and Armenian Journal of Physics, both of which are under Creative Commons Attribution licences.
This new library district in Oregon, United States, has adopted an intellectual property policy licensing the vast majority of District-produced content under CC BY. The Board of Directors and staff felt this was an appropriate way to maximize the impact of the content produced by this publicly-funded entity.
- donated 250,000 photographs from their German Photo Collection (depicting scenes from German history and daily life) with corresponding captions and metadata to Wikicommons - all under Germany’s ported CC BY-SA 3.0 license or in the public domain.
- Does not exactly use Creative Commons licences, but has been part of the flickr commons project and produced a valuable report on the benefits of OA to memory institutions (Springer, Michelle, et al. (2008). For the Common Good: The Library of Congress Flickr Pilot Project)
- Digitised content which is available through LSE Digital Library is licensed under Creative Commons where rights in the original permit - according to a published policy which sets out reasons for adopting CC
- LSE Library also publishes archival photographs of LSE via Flickr Commons
- license a large range of their internal documents/policies under CC, mainly through their Open Publish initiative (see background paper)
- encourage donors to use CC as part of their Flickr-based PictureAustralia initiative
- incorporate Wikipedia descriptions and crowdsourced text-correction in their Newspapers Online Australia initiative (see slides here and here)
National Library of New Zealand
- CC-friendly Use and Reuse Policy for collection items: http://natlib.govt.nz/about-us/strategy-and-policy/collection-use-and-reuse-policy; blog post: http://natlib.govt.nz/blog/posts/our-new-use-and-reuse-policy
New York Public Library
- incorporate CC licensed material (and in particular photographs) into their digital storytelling collection
- release large parts of their photo archives under the Flickr Commons project.
- also, Queensland museum?
The Swedish National Library signed an agreement in September 2011 that released the Swedish National Bibliography and authority files into the public domain using the CC0 public domain dedication.
University of California Santa Cruz Library
The University of Michigan Library has surrendered all copyrights to its Open Access bibliographic records via CC0. As of November 17, 2010, the Library released 684,597 bibliographic records into the public domain. The Library also defaults all of its site content under the most open CC license - CC BY.
- The majority of their digital collections are available under some form of CC license (exceptions are those items still within copyright). Most are available under CC BY-SA, but some materials from partner institutions use different variations of CC licenses.
- Although not available under CC, the Villanova library has also launched two open source library software packages, VuFind (a library resource portal) and VuDL (digital library administration software), both freely available under a GPL.
- Australian Broadcasting Corporation
- Australia's main public broadcaster has started releasing material from its archives under CC BY-NC
Bundesarchiv - the German Federal Archive
- Bundesarchiv - the German Federal Archive
- released 100,000 photographs under CC BY-SA for free reuse on Wikicommons and saw sales of prints of the photographs double (see slides here)
Collections Council of Australia
- Collections Council of Australia
- has launched the beta of a digital storytelling initiative, Now and Then, that requires contributors to CC license
Sound and Vision launched Open Images, an open media platform that offers online access to audiovisual archive material to stimulate creative reuse. All media is available under a Creative Commons license. Open Images contains a collection of more than 1,500 videos from the Sound and Vision archives and also welcomes collections from others.
Japan's Public Broadcasting Company: http://www.slideshare.net/cckslide/cckorea-nhk-creative-library
- Staffordshire Hoard
- In July 2009, an Anglo-Saxon treasure was found in a field near Birmingham, UK. Since mid-September photographs of the items have been on display on flickr:
http://www.flickr.com/photos/finds/sets/72157622378376316/ Some photos are under BY-NC, others under BY-NC-SA.
Yale Digital Commons
In March 2010, The Amsterdam Historical Museum (WAAG) released its complete collection online under a CC Attribution-NonCommercial license, allowing the free redistribution and reuse of the collection for noncommercial purposes. This was the first time in the museum's history that its collection has been available to the public. The collection contains over 70,000 objects dating back to the Middle Ages and is updated on a bi-weekly basis. http://www.waag.org/news/67439
Update: The Brooklyn Museum's text and image collection are now under CC BY.
The Brooklyn Museum has incorporated CC-licensing in a number of ways through out its digital footprint. On a broad level, the museum's image collection is released under a CC Attribution-NonCommercial license, allowing others both share and reuse the images in noncommercial derivative works. Similarly, BM developed an open API that community members can query based on a number of identifiers, including the CC license. Lastly, a remix contest collaboration with Blondie Guitarist Chris Stein saw BM release Stein-produced audio stems under a CC Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike license.
- On October 30th, 2009, Brooklyn Museum opened Who Shot Rock & Roll, an exhibition commemorating photographers and their creative role in rock & roll history. To celebrate, the museum has teamed up with Chris Stein for a companion musical project called Who Shot Drums and Bass. Its eight original songs are released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike license. Brooklyn Museum is asking remixers to download the tracks from its Soundcloud page and remix them for the Who Shot Rock & Roll: Remix! contest. Details on the Brooklyn Museum website. (Info from Creative Commons Blog)
MoMA has released its dataset with more than 120,000 records of art works into the public domain using CC0.
Also known as the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities, the Swedish Historical Museum (Historiska museet) released roughly 63,500 item photographs, 1200 illustrations, and 264,500 scanned catalog cards under a CC license in early 2010 - Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works or Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike depending on medium. Heralded as a first step, Historiska Museet is looking at avenues to continue opening their catalog with less restrictions in the future as they better understand how the public will engage these new resources.
- Historiska museet in Stockholm announces their digital catalogue under cc-license, see blogpost here
The Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum was one of the first major cultural institutions to utilize CC licensing, releasing their classical music podcast The Concert under a CC Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works license in September of 2006. By allowing the free sharing and re-distribution of their podcast, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum has been able to reach a wide ranging audience with The Concert seeing over one million downloads from over 116 different countries, creating a positive promotional tool for the museum and its classical music program. http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/16229
In December of 2008, the National September 11th Memorial Museum launched its Artist Registry, allowing the public the ability to add their 9/11 inspired works to the museum's collection. The museum allowed users to designate a CC license while uploading, encouraging community submissions in a progressive and socially responsible fashion. http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/11433
- Book/wiki about how museums can become more interactive with their patrons
- Released CC BY-NC license
- Creator, Nina Simon, is smart and would be good to build copy with
Sydney's Powerhouse Museum has integrated CC-licensing into a number of its projects from the inclusion of CC Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative licensed photos to its Photo of the Day project to offering downloadable resources from Play at Powerhouse, PHM’s education program for children, under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license. In addition, PHM has released object descriptions, production notes, history notes under a CC Attribution-NonCommercial License, similarly releasing factual data (object dimensions, relevant dates, etc.) under a CC Attribution-Share Alike license
- license educational materials and photos under CC licences
- license their collection descriptions under CC BY-NC and their collection data under BY-SA (specifically for reuse on Wikipedia)
- have written papers on the financial and other benefits of OA, and posted on crowd-sourced discoveries and reuse as a result
More info: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWd2cgYZqqw
SMK, Statens Museum for Kunst, The National Gallery of Denmark in Copenhagen, has released digital images of 160 highlights, and 100 educational videos on YouTube under the CC BY license. The 160 images and 100 videos are also featured in the Google Art Project. The artworks are free of copyright, but the digital images of them have so far been under copyright restrictions. From now on, they are freely available to our users for any purpose. As a national gallery, we believe that those parts of our collections that are in the Public Domain belong to everyone. With this limited selection of content, we want to test how people use these freely available digital resources in new creative and innovative ways.
- has collaborated with the local Wikimedia community, to document materials in the museum’s collection (eg through photography) and upload this material to Wikicommons (see slides here)
- and so have 45 other museums in the Netherlands; the full list is also available on the Wiki Loves Art website.
Walter Art Museum
York Museums Trust
Released 60,000 images under CC BY-SA or marked with Public Domain Mark: http://www.yorkmuseumstrust.org.uk/collections/.
Te Papa Tongarewa: The Museum of New Zealand
Te Papa has released 30,000 high resolution images under either 'no known copyright' or CC-BY-NC-ND licences.
Wikipedia Loves Art
Institutions using licenses for materials that should be marked as in the public domain
- Walters Art Museum
- 2D - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alfred_Jacob_Miller_-_%22Big_Bowl%22_%28_A_Crow_Chief%29_-_Walters_37194015.jpg
- 3D - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinese_-_Camel_-_Walters_492383_-_Profile.jpg
- Public.Resource.org on youtube
- Yale Digital Commons
- National Portrait Gallery
- Cornell Libraries
- White House Flickr account?
- Library of Congress
- Department of Education
- Flickr: The Commons
Some U.S. museum policies on open access, in order of public launch:
- Yale University: Open Access to Digital Representations of Works in the Public Domain from Museum, Library, and Archive Collections, launched in 2011 http://ydc2.yale.edu/open-access-collections
- National Gallery of Art (US): Open Access Policy for Images of Works of Art Presumed in the Public Domain, launched in 2012 https://images.nga.gov/en/page/openaccess.html
- Davison Art Center, Wesleyan University: DAC Open Access Images Policy, launched in 2012 http://www.wesleyan.edu/dac/openaccess
- The Getty Open Content Program, launched in 2013 http://www.getty.edu/about/opencontent.html
- Walters Art Museum - released over 20,000 images freely licensed in 2012; changed licensing on website http://openglam.org/2013/01/22/walters-art-museum-a-case-study-in-sharing/
Related studies and other resources:
- Simon Tanner, “Reproduction Charging Models & Rights Policy for Digital Images in American Art Museums,” August 2004; Seminal research establishes that museum image sales and licensing activities are rarely (if ever) profitable when overhead costs are taken into account http://www.kdcs.kcl.ac.uk/fileadmin/documents/USMuseum_SimonTanner.pdf
- Sharing is Caring: Openness and Sharing in the Cultural Heritage Sector; Anthology of 18 essays about open content in GLAMs, by Merete Sanderhoff (contributing editor), Curator of Digital Practice at the National Gallery of Denmark http://www.sharingiscaring.smk.dk/en/explore-the-art/free-download-of-artworks/sharing-is-caring/
- Europeana’s Pubic Domain Charter; Excellent document outlines the principles behind the public domain for contributors to Europe’s online cultural aggregator http://pro.europeana.eu/get-involved/europeana-tech/europeana-tech-events/the-europeana-public-domain-charter
- "The Problem with the Yellow Milkmaid"; Interviews and case studies examine the motivations and business models behind open access for cultural materials http://pro.europeana.eu/yellow-milkmaid
- Yellow Milkmaid Syndrome Tumblr; Fun way to show why this work is important http://yellowmilkmaidsyndrome dot tumblr dot com
- Creative Reuse and Digital Collections http://digitalnz.org/blog/posts/creative-reuse-and-digital-collections
- References and Quotes regarding Public Domain and Image Sales and Licensing Activities in Museums; From the Smithsonian’s Web and New Media Strategy wiki, a page that lists over 20 useful resources, with quotes and links http://smithsonian-webstrategy.wikispaces.com/Public+Domain+and+Image+Sales+References
- Creative Commons and Cultural Heritage Institutions includes examples of GLAM institutions and how they leverage our licenses and public domain tools; http://www.slideshare.net/janeatcc/cc-cultural-heritage
- Open Knowledge Foundation’s Open GLAM initiative; OpenGLAM is an initiative run by the Open Knowledge Foundation that promotes free and open access to digital cultural heritage held by Galleries, Libraries, Archives and Museums. http://openglam.org/ Twitter: @openglam and #openglam Subscribe to the OpenGLAM mailing list: https://lists.okfn.org/mailman/listinfo/open-glam
- OpenGLAM Principles; 6 principles to be championed by “open” institutions, developed by the Open Knowledge Foundation and community volunteers http://openglam.org/principles/
- Wikipedia “GLAM-WIKI” conference, April 10-12, 2015, in The Hague, NL; https://nl.wikimedia.org/wiki/GLAM-WIKI_2015
- GLAM Outreach Wiki; http://outreach.wikimedia.org/wiki/GLAM
- GLAM WikiProject on GLAM Outreach Wiki; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons:GLAM