Creative Commons and Open Educational Resources
Creative Commons Facilitates Innovation and Collaboration in Education
CC enables translation of educational resources into different languages. A growing number of creators of educational resources are self-distributing their works openly via the Internet. When educational resources are released under a CC license permitting adaptations, anyone interested in the subject matter may translate those resources and otherwise customize them for local needs. For example, CC-licensed courses made available by MIT OpenCourseWare have been translated into at least 10 languages, including Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, French, German, Vietnamese, and Ukrainian.
CC enables educational resources to evolve and be improved through peer and student edits. CC licensed OER are living documents that can be built upon and improved not only by authors and publishers, but by colleagues and students as well. For example, when a University of Michigan professor was unsatisfied with currently available textbooks in his area of computer science, he was able to use an existing openly licensed textbook as the basis for developing a new book that met his needs, by changing the overall focus of the book, adding his own original content, and restructuring the original text.CC enables easier discovery of educational resources on the web. CC licenses provide the legal infrastructure that allows OER to be shared, but there is an important technical component to sharing successfully as well. Creators of OER want to make sure their work is visible to users, and learners and educators need to be able to find resources relevant to their chosen subject. CC has further broadened the impact of OER by embedding each of its licenses with software code that makes the license terms machine-readable—that is—discoverable by a search engine. In addition to creating licenses that can be indexed by prominent search engines such as Google and Yahoo!, CC is also exploring ways to provide scalable search and discovery for educational resources on the web via its search prototype, DiscoverEd.
How Creative Commons Makes Sharing, Adapting and Finding OER Easy
CC offers creators a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to their work. CC licenses are built on top of copyright law, allowing creators to change their copyright terms from the default "all-rights-reserved" to "some rights reserved." Creators may choose among a suite of six CC licenses that are free-of-charge, easy to use, and help to standardize what is "open" on the Internet.All CC licenses require Attribution, or credit, back to the original creator (though never with the suggestion of sponsorship or endorsement). In addition, a creator may choose one or more of the following terms:
Non-Commercial. Allows others to copy, distribute, display and perform the work for non-commercial purposes only.
Share Alike. Allows others to distribute derivative works but only on the same terms as the original.
No Derivatives. Allows others to copy, distribute, display, and perform only verbatim copies of the work — but not to make derivative works based on it.
CC licenses are available in three different formats. The first is a summary deed that simplifies the terms of each license into a few universal icons and non-technical language. The second is the legal terms of the license itself, which have been vetted by a global team of legal experts. And finally, the machine-readable code enables search and discovery.
The Success of OER Depends on Legal and Technical Interoperability
Disclaimer: CREATIVE COMMONS DOES NOT PROVIDE LEGAL ADVICE OR REPRESENTATION. CONSULT YOUR OWN LEGAL COUNSEL FOR LEGAL ADVICE.